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Ruins of Cemenelum



Roman Sites in France

Angelokastro is a Byzantine castle on the island of Corfu. It is located at the top of the highest peak of the island"s shoreline in the northwest coast near Palaiokastritsa and built on particularly precipitous and rocky terrain. It stands 305 m on a steep cliff above the sea and surveys the City of Corfu and the mountains of mainland Greece to the southeast and a wide area of Corfu toward the northeast and northwest.

Angelokastro is one of the most important fortified complexes of Corfu. It was an acropolis which surveyed the region all the way to the southern Adriatic and presented a formidable strategic vantage point to the occupant of the castle.

Angelokastro formed a defensive triangle with the castles of Gardiki and Kassiopi, which covered Corfu"s defences to the south, northwest and northeast.

The castle never fell, despite frequent sieges and attempts at conquering it through the centuries, and played a decisive role in defending the island against pirate incursions and during three sieges of Corfu by the Ottomans, significantly contributing to their defeat.

During invasions it helped shelter the local peasant population. The villagers also fought against the invaders playing an active role in the defence of the castle.

The exact period of the building of the castle is not known, but it has often been attributed to the reigns of Michael I Komnenos and his son Michael II Komnenos. The first documentary evidence for the fortress dates to 1272, when Giordano di San Felice took possession of it for Charles of Anjou, who had seized Corfu from Manfred, King of Sicily in 1267.

From 1387 to the end of the 16th century, Angelokastro was the official capital of Corfu and the seat of the Provveditore Generale del Levante, governor of the Ionian islands and commander of the Venetian fleet, which was stationed in Corfu.

The governor of the castle (the castellan) was normally appointed by the City council of Corfu and was chosen amongst the noblemen of the island.

Angelokastro is considered one of the most imposing architectural remains in the Ionian Islands.


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Day One

Remember that phrase from The Wizard of Oz: ‘Lions and tigers and bears, oh my!’ - well, we have our own version at BeRightBack: Nice edition. Think ‘Antiques and flowers and flea markets, oh my!’ Doesn’t quite have the same ring to it, but you get the idea, and it’s exactly how you’ll be spending your first morning in Nice.

Located in the Old Town, Nice is famous for its antiques and market stalls - over 100 stalls to be kind of exact - making it the third largest market of its kind in France. Be warned, these are seasoned sellers you’re dealing and they can smell a bargain hunter a mile off. Bring your haggling A-game and see if you can bag any deals from these steely traders.

Photo Credit: @didemkaplan_iloveme

At the Nice markets, you can find any treasure you put your mind to, whether it’s an out-of-season designer bag or first edition books, there’s something for everyone.

If flowers are your forté, you’re in luck. Six days a week the marché aux fleurs (flower market to those who’ve forgotten GCSE French lessons) is stocked with beautiful flowers that even the locals are drawn to, as well as fruit and vegetables.

Photo Credit: @eugenielavergnelacroix

For those who are often found with their nose buried in a book, plan your trip around the first or third Saturday of the month and go to the Palais de Justice for stalls filled with secondhand books and antique postcards.

Photo Credit: @goncagocmen

By the time you’ve decided to stop for breakfast, hopefully you’ve got some vintage, retro goods in hand time to celebrate your hard work haggling and indulge in what the French do best on their breakfast menu: pastries.

There are plenty of cafés in the Old Town, so choose your favourite and fill up on croissants, pain au chocolat and gulp down some coffee - the weekend is only just beginning.

It’s time to harness that buttery, jam-filled croissant energy into exploring the neighbourhood of Cimiez an upscale residential area that is built where the ancient Gaulish and Roman settlement of Cemenelum once stood. In fact, you can still visit the ruins of Cemenelum which include the Arena and the Roman Baths - definitely worth a look.

Photo Credit: @history_trianon

It is also famous for its art and culture, and is home to the beautiful, burnt orange coloured Musée Matisse, which was once literally the home of Matisse himself. It is worth going to just to admire the palatial building itself, but don’t hesitate to take a step inside and witness one of the world’s largest collections of his works.

Photo Credit: @museematissenice

Nearby, check out the grand Régina Building, a hotel that was built in 1896 to host Queen Victoria and her entourage of aristocrats. It’s now an incredibly fancy apartment building, but still plays homage to it’s royal history as a statue of the Queen herself sits nearby and a crown is perched on the roof.

Photo Credit: @iamdandanliu

You’ve had a lot of culture and royalty reminiscing for one day, so use your evening to take a relaxing stroll along Coulée Verte - an elevated linear park (basically meaning it’s above ground and really long) that is built on top of an obsolete railway.

Photo Credit: @basically_french

It is the perfect place to escape in the city, and is a favourite spot for families, joggers, dog walkers and no-care-in-the-world strollers.

Not too far from this lofty park is the promenade des anglais, where you switch up luscious greenery for some sunset sea views, Mediterranean ocean style. There are plenty of ice cream stalls too, so try not to spoil your dinner (believe us, you want to be hungry for this place) and grab a scoop of gelato.

Photo Credit: @southbase__

Now for the main event. Dinner at The Negresco hotel restaurant, Le Chantecler, will be a meal you won’t forget for a long time. It’s definitely on the more pricey side, so only visit if it’s well within your budget, but you won’t regret spending your cash at this two Michelin star spot.

Photo Credit: @negrescohotel

Finish your first night in Nice by embracing the high-end culture and grab some drinks at Castel Plage Beach Club, a short walk along the promenade away. Wrap up warm and enjoy some the cocktails or wines they have on offer, with front row seats to the ocean.

Photo Credit: @castelplage


Vaison-la-Romaine

A must-see archaeological hub

Located a few kilometres to the East of Orange, Vaison proudly flies the flag of its Roman roots: in 1924, the town even requested that the words “la Romaine” be added to its original name. And rightly so: Vaison-la-Romaine is France’s largest archaeological hub, home to the Roman sites of Puymin and La Villasse, unearthed from 1907 onwards. Puymin harbours the remains of lavish Roman villas and a theatre formerly able to welcome up to 6,000 spectators. In La Villasse, you can admire the foundations of the Rue des Boutiques – the town’s main thoroughfare – and Silver Bust House. Measuring an impressive 5,000 square metres, it was the town’s largest inhabited construction at the time.


Contents

Foundation Edit

The first known hominid settlements in the Nice area date back about 400,000 years [11] the Terra Amata archeological site shows one of the earliest uses of fire, construction of houses, and flint findings dated to around 230,000 years ago. [12] Nice was probably founded around 350 BC by colonists from the Greek city of Phocaea in western Anatolia, and was given the name of Níkaia ( Νίκαια ) in honour of a victory over the neighbouring Ligurians (Italic peoples in north west of Italy, probably the Vediantii kingdom) Nike ( Νίκη ) was the Greek goddess of victory. The city soon became one of the busiest trading ports on the Ligurian coast but it had an important rival in the Roman town of Cemenelum, which continued to exist as a separate city until the time of the Lombard invasions. [10] The ruins of Cemenelum are in Cimiez, now a district of Nice.

Early development Edit

In the 7th century, Nice joined the Genoese League formed by the towns of Liguria. In 729 the city repulsed the Saracens but in 859 and again in 880 the Saracens pillaged and burned it, and for most of the 10th century remained masters of the surrounding country. [10]

During the Middle Ages, Nice participated in the wars and history of Italy. As an ally of Pisa it was the enemy of Genoa, and both the King of France and the Holy Roman Emperor endeavoured to subjugate it but in spite of this it maintained its municipal liberties. During the 13th and 14th centuries the city fell more than once into the hands of the Counts of Provence, [10] but it regained its independence even though related to Genoa.

The medieval city walls surrounded the Old Town. The landward side was protected by the River Paillon, which was later covered over and is now the tram route towards the Acropolis. The east side of the town was protected by fortifications on Castle Hill. Another river flowed into the port on the east side of Castle Hill. Engravings suggest that the port area was also defended by walls. Under Monoprix in Place de Garibaldi are excavated remains of a well-defended city gate on the main road from Turin. [ citation needed ]

Duchy of Savoy Edit

In 1388, the commune placed itself under the protection of the Counts of Savoy. [10] Nice participated – directly or indirectly – in the history of Savoy until 1860. [ citation needed ]

The maritime strength of Nice now rapidly increased until it was able to cope with the Barbary pirates the fortifications were largely extended and the roads to the city improved. [10] In 1561 Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy abolished the use of Latin as an administrative language and established the Italian language as the official language of government affairs in Nice.

During the struggle between Francis I and Charles V great damage was caused by the passage of the armies invading Provence pestilence and famine raged in the city for several years. [10] In 1538, in the nearby town of Villeneuve-Loubet, through the mediation of Pope Paul III, the two monarchs concluded a ten years' truce. [13]

In 1543, Nice was attacked by the united Franco-Ottoman forces of Francis I and Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha, in the Siege of Nice though the inhabitants repulsed the assault which followed the terrible bombardment, they were ultimately compelled to surrender, and Barbarossa was allowed to pillage the city and to carry off 2,500 captives. Pestilence appeared again in 1550 and 1580. [10]

In 1600, Nice was briefly taken by the Duke of Guise. By opening the ports of the county to all nations, and proclaiming full freedom of trade (1626), the commerce of the city was given great stimulus, the noble families taking part in its mercantile enterprises. [10]

Captured by Nicolas Catinat in 1691, Nice was restored to Savoy in 1696 but it was again besieged by the French in 1705, and in the following year its citadel and ramparts were demolished. [10]

Kingdom of Sardinia Edit

The Treaty of Utrecht (1713) once more gave the city back to the Duke of Savoy, who was on that same occasion recognised as King of Sicily. In the peaceful years which followed, the "new town" was built. From 1744 until the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748) the French and Spaniards were again in possession.

In 1775 the king, who in 1718 had swapped his sovereignty of Sicily for the Kingdom of Sardinia, destroyed all that remained of the ancient liberties of the commune. Conquered in 1792 by the armies of the First French Republic, the County of Nice continued to be part of France until 1814 but after that date it reverted to the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia. [10]

French Nice Edit

After the Treaty of Turin was signed in 1860 between the Sardinian king and Napoleon III as a consequence of the Plombières Agreement, the county was again and definitively ceded to France as a territorial reward for French assistance in the Second Italian War of Independence against Austria, which saw Lombardy united with Piedmont-Sardinia. The cession was ratified by a regional referendum: over 25,000 electors out of a total of 30,700 were in favour of the attachment to France. [10] This event caused the Niçard exodus, that was the emigration of a quarter of the Niçard Italians to Italy. [14] Savoy was also transferred to the French crown by similar means. Giuseppe Garibaldi, born in Nice, opposed the cession to France, arguing that the ballot was rigged by the French. Many Italians from Nizza then moved to the Ligurian towns of Ventimiglia, Bordighera and Ospedaletti, [15] giving rise to a local branch of the movement of the Italian irredentists which considered the re-acquisition of Nice to be one of their nationalist goals.

In 1900, the Tramway de Nice electrified its horse-drawn streetcars and spread its network to the entire département from Menton to Cagnes-sur-Mer. By the 1930s more bus connections were added in the area. [ citation needed ] In the 1930s, Nice hosted international car racing in the Formula Libre (predecessor to Formula One) on the so-called Circuit Nice. The circuit started along the waterfront just south of the Jardin Albert I, then headed westward along the Promenade des Anglais followed by a hairpin turn at the Hotel Negresco to come back eastward and around the Jardin Albert I before heading again east along the beach on the Quai des Etats-Unis. [16]

As war broke out in September 1939, Nice became a city of refuge for many displaced foreigners, notably Jews fleeing the Nazi progression into Eastern Europe. From Nice many sought further shelter in the French colonies, Morocco and North and South America. After July 1940 and the establishment of the Vichy Regime, antisemitic aggressions accelerated the exodus, starting in July 1941 and continuing through 1942. On 26 August 1942, 655 Jews of foreign origin were rounded up by the Laval government and interned in the Auvare barracks. Of these, 560 were deported to Drancy internment camp on 31 August 1942. Due to the activity of the Jewish banker Angelo Donati and of the Capuchin friar Père Marie-Benoît the local authorities hindered the application of anti-Jewish Vichy laws. [17]

The first résistants to the new regime were a group of High School seniors of the Lycée de Nice, now Lycée Masséna [fr] , in September 1940, later arrested and executed in 1944 near Castellane. The first public demonstrations occurred on 14 July 1942 when several hundred protesters took to the streets along the Avenue de la Victoire and in the Place Masséna. In November 1942 German troops moved into most of unoccupied France, but Italian troops moved into a smaller zone including Nice. A certain ambivalence remained among the population, many of whom were recent immigrants of Italian ancestry. However, the resistance gained momentum after the Italian surrender in 1943 when the German army occupied the former Italian zone. Reprisals intensified between December 1943 and July 1944, when many partisans were tortured and executed by the local Gestapo and the French Milice. Nice was also heavily bombarded by American aircraft in preparation for the Allied landing in Provence (1000 dead or wounded and more than 5600 people homeless) and famine ensued during summer 1944. American paratroopers entered the city on 30 August 1944 and Nice was finally liberated. The consequences of the war were heavy: the population decreased by 15% [ citation needed ] and economic life was totally disrupted.

In the second half of the 20th century, Nice enjoyed an economic boom primarily driven by tourism and construction. Two men dominated this period: Jean Médecin, mayor for 33 years from 1928 to 1943 and from 1947 to 1965, and his son Jacques, mayor for 24 years from 1966 to 1990. Under their leadership, there was extensive urban renewal, including many new constructions. These included the convention centre, theatres, new thoroughfares and expressways. The arrival of the Pieds-Noirs, refugees from Algeria after 1962 independence, also gave the city a boost and somewhat changed the make-up of its population and traditional views. [ citation needed ] By the late 1980s, rumors of political corruption in the city government surfaced and eventually formal accusations against Jacques Médecin forced him to flee France in 1990. Later arrested in Uruguay in 1993, he was extradited back to France in 1994, convicted of several counts of corruption and associated crimes and sentenced to imprisonment.

On 16 October 1979, a landslide and an undersea slide caused two tsunamis that hit the western coast of Nice these events killed between 8 and 23 people.

In February 2001, European leaders met in Nice to negotiate and sign what is now the Treaty of Nice, amending the institutions of the European Union. [18]

In 2003, local Chief Prosecutor Éric de Montgolfier alleged that some judicial cases involving local personalities had been suspiciously derailed by the local judiciary, which he suspected of having unhealthy contacts through Masonic lodges with the defendants. A controversial official report stated later that Montgolfier had made unwarranted accusations. [ citation needed ]

On 14 July 2016, a truck was deliberately driven into a crowd of people by Mohamed Lahouaiej-Bouhlel on the Promenade des Anglais. The crowd was watching a fireworks display in celebration of Bastille Day. [19] A total of 87 people were killed, including the perpetrator, who was shot dead by police. [20] [21] Another 434 were injured, with 52 in critical care and 25 in intensive care, according to the Paris prosecutor. [22] On 29 October 2020, a stabbing attack killed three people at the local Notre-Dame de Nice. One of the victims, a woman, was beheaded by the attacker. [23] Several additional victims were injured. The attacker, who was shot by the police, was taken into custody. The Islamic state claimed responsibility for both attacks. [24]


The End of the Chateau

A flourishing economy and artistic life failed to cushion Nice from an ominous political situation. Once again Savoy, France and Spain were locked in a power struggle that erupted when French forces under Louis XIV occupied Savoy and Nice in 1691. Although the Treaty of Turin returned Nice to Savoy in 1697, peace was short-lived. The War of Spanish Succession broke out and Savoy broke its alliance with France who promptly attacked Nice again. The city capitulated at the end of 1705 and in 1706 French forces demolished the Chateau, reducing the walls, towers and bastions to rubble. Nice lost its military function and became part of France until it was returned to Savoy in 1748.


Regina Palace and Cimiez hill

In 1860, after the annexation of the county of Nice by France, the access to the hills of the Nice conurbation is not easy. The opening up of a large avenue (the Boulevard de Cimiez) in 1881 combined with the enthusiasm of the aristocracy enamoured with the winter climatic condition, attracts investors who cover the hill with rich mansions and luxury hotels.

In the 1881s, Queen Victoria stays on the Coast and expresses the wish to have a building commensurate with her importance, equipped with the latest modern comforts (electricity, sewers, central heating).

Under the direction of the architect Sébastien Marcel Biasini, the building is completed in less than two years, in early 1897. It is administered by a company that calls it Excelsior Hotel Regina. True to her promise, the sovereign and her suite come to stay there from March 12 to April 28, 1897, then from March 13 to April 28, 1898, and a third and final time from March 12 to May 2, 1899.

During the First World War the Regina is requisitioned and turned into a military hospital. In 1920 it is purchased by a real estate company and it is named Hotel Regina. The 1929 crisis and the growing craze for seaside activities will mean the end of these hotels on the hill. Thus, in 1934, the Regina Hotel is declared bankrupt.

Converted into an apartment building, it is sold in separate units. In 1938, Henri Matisse buys two apartments on the 3rd floor to convert them into one large studio-apartment.

Le Régina, Nice
Photo: Ville de Nice Le Régina, Nice, vue aérienne
Photo: A Vol d’ Oiseau / Droits réservés

Provence – The Roman Province along the via Julia

Aix, Pont Flavien, Frejus, Nice, La Turbie

In 13 BC, the via Julia Augusta went east from Arelate (Arles) to Aix en Provence, Fréjus, Nice and into the Ligurian coast of the Italian peninsula where it merged with the via Amelia, via Postumia and via Aurelia back to Rome. By the 3 rd century the name of the road had changed to the via Aurelia. The Emperor who changed the name was coincidently, Emperor Aurelian.

To find out about Ambrussum, Nîmes, Pont du Gard, Mas de Tourelles, Saint Rémy de Provence and Glanum, Les Baux de Provence and Les Trémaïés and Apt and Pont Julien, CLICK HERE for Provence along the via Domitia.

To find out more about Arles, the Barbegal Mill, Carpentras, Orange, Vaison La Romaine and Vienne, CLICK HERE for Provence along the via Agrippa.

The via Julia Augusta was inaugurated as part of the commemoration of the 13 BC defeat of 45 Celtic and Ligurian tribes by the Emperor Augustus.

The road connected Arles to Rome through what is now the Ligurian coastline. In 7BC, in honor of the victory, the 164’ tall Tropaeum Alpium monument was constructed on a hill above the Mediterranean, along the Grand Corniche overlooking Monaco in what is now modern day La Turbie. La Turbie is also the place where Princess Grace of Monaco was killed in a car crash in 1982.

The triumphal monument was turned into a fortress, plundered for materials and desecrated well into the 20 th century but part of it it is still here.

In 2009, Joshua Hammer wrote this very good article about the via Aurelia for Smithsonian Magazine.

Aix (Aquae Sextius)

The story of the Roman Provincia in France starts in 125 BC, when the Greek port of Massilia (Marseille) was attacked by the Salyens, a confederation of northern Celtic tribes. Unable to defend themselves, they sent a plea for help to Rome, their favorite trading partner.

Help arrived in the form of Caius Sextius Calvinus and his legendary legions, known for lopping off the heads of the enemy and hanging them from the necks of their horses.

The battle was swift and short. In the end, Sextius Calvinus destroyed the Salyens mountain fortifications at Entremont and built his own camp nearby a group of thermal springs.

He called his settlement Aquae Sextius (the Baths of Sextius). It was the first Roman settlement in Gaul (France). Over the years it became known as Sextius and then shortened to Aix. it’s now known as Aix-en-Provence.

Calling Rome for help might have seemed like a good idea at the time but once you invite the Roman Empire into your house, the never leave. Instead of returning home, they colonized. From the encampment of Aquae Sextius they expanded and built their own port city, the Colonia Narbo Martius, modern day Narbonne.

Although Aix (Aquae Sextius) was the first Roman town of the Province, very little of it remains.

Excavations of the Celtic fortress of Entremont have been ongoing since the late 1800s when a few severed heads were found. In 1943, German troops using the hilltop fortress as a lookout encampment discovered some statuary, which they then sold to private collectors. Nonetheless, word got out about the site and after the war excavations began. The site is open to the public.

In the modern Provencal town of Aix en Provence is the bas relief carving of Caius Sextius Calvinus on the 1758 Obelisk fountain in the Place des Precheurs.

Pont Flavien

A great stop along the via Julia Augusta is the Triumphal Towers of the Pont Flavien, a small 1 st century BC stone bridge crossing the Touloubre River near Saint-Chamas, about 20 minutes south of Salon de Provence and 40 minutes northwest of Marseille. This is the only double arch triumph bridge in existence.

The bridge was commissioned by Lucius Donnius Flavos, a Priest of Rome, as attested by the dedication still visible on the bridge tower. Although it was built in 12 BC, during the time of Augustus, many believe it was built to commemorate the victory of Julius Caesar over the legions of Pompey Magnus.

During the Great Civil War of 49-45 BC, Massilia gave its support to Pompey. When Caesar defeated Pompey, he also defeated Massilia, looting the city’s wealth and stripping it of all Roman support. Caesar took from Massilia and gave to Arelate (Arles).

The 20’ tall triumphal towers capped with stone lions were an imposing reminder to any who traveled from Arelate to Massilia, reminding them who was the victorious and who was the defeated. The road and the bridge were used a lot. You can still see the worn grooves of cart wheels in the stones crossing the bridge. The tracks are 1.42 meters [4.5 Roman feet] apart, the standard width of a Roman chariot axle.
The western arch has collapsed twice. The first collapse was repaired in 1763 by Jean Chastel, who also rebuilt the lions. The only original lion is on the right hand side of the eastern arch. The second collapse is when a German tank collided into the arch. An American truck hit it in 1945. It was rebuilt in 1949 and i f you didn’t know, you’d never notice.

Forum Julii – Frejus

Forum Julii was the fortress seaport of Julius Caesar. At that time the harbor of Forum Julii formed a natural lagoon to the Mediterranean. It served Rome as a Naval Port until the 5 th century. As the sea receded over the years, the lagoon filled in with silt.

The colony was given to Rome’s 8th Legion. Gnaeus Julius Agricola, the General who conquered Britain, was born here in 40 AD. His named is honored these days with a parking lot on Place Agricola.

Supposedly when Augustus arrived to Forum Julii in 23 BC, Mark Anthony’s defeated fleet from the 31 BC Battle of Actium was moored here, ready to welcome the new Emperor.

During the Pax Romana, a large part of the navy moved away from Forum Julii and joined other fleets in Misenum, near Naples, but there were still enough of a fleet to handle any uprisings, notably during the civil wars after the death of Emperor Nero.

The Frejus aqueduct was another great architectural achievement spanning over 42 kilometers over hills and through solid rock. It flowed water to Forum Julii until the 5th century. The remains are stripped down red stone, standing like giant chess pieces.

Modern Frejus has tried to make a link to the past. In many ways it can be very confusing. The Theatre Le Forum is not the Roman theater and the ancient Forum. It is a modern multipurpose arts theater. The Roman Theater is a totally rebuilt theater on the site that once held the ancient version.

Although the harbor is barely visible, thanks to a 19th century restoration, the 33′ tall, 1st century Lantern d’Auguste still stands in the same position as a landmark of the entrance to the once fortified harbor. The only difference is that the stone column with the 6 sides pyramid cap now sits on land.

The grand piece of history here is the Frejus Arena that once held 10,000 people. The remains of some of the vaults have survived the ages but the interior is all rebuilt during a restoration project of 2008-2012. The amphitheater has endured a sad history of neglect and natural disaster. A flood of 1959 carried away most of the interior and filled the Arena with silt.

These days the Frejus Amphitheater hosts a concert series during the summer months.

Nice (Cemenelum)

Nice is one of the most beautiful small cities in Europe. It gets over 4 million visitors a year.

Nice was originally settle as the Greek port, Nikaia, named after the Greek god Nike. The Greeks still refer to it as Nikaia.

After the victory of Augustus against the Ligurians and the other 45 tribes, settlements and colonies began springing up along what is now the Côte d’Azur.

In 14 BC, the Romans built the colony of Cemenelum overlooking the Greek colony of Nikaia.

Cemenelum peaked in the 3rd century under the Severan dynasty. All 3 bath complexes were built them. Caracalla also improved the Amphitheater.

The ancient baths and amphitheater are still perched upon the hills of Nice’s Cimiéz neighborhood. The baths closed down in the 5th century.

The ancient site was a wonderful backdrop for the annual Grand Parade du Jazz, the International Nice Jazz Festival but the Cimiéz is a very upscale residential neighborhood and the tourist traffic became an annoyance. The Festival moved into the central city in 2011.

Of the 4 million tourists who come to Nice every year, very few of them go up to the Cimiéz to visit the Roman ruins. This might be good for the residents of the Cimiéz but if you happen to be in Nice, take the time and see them. It is an easy 30 minute walk from the lower city or easily accessible by municipal bus.

To find out other sites in the Alpes Martitimes along the via Julia Augusta I highly recommend the book ‘The Roman Remains of Southern France’ by James Bromwich. The book is out of print but there are still copies available.

Another great resource is The Roman Provence Guide by Edwin Mullins. Much of the information used in this article was provided in these two books.

The Provincia of Rome was looted, destroyed, repurposed and thankfully put back together thanks to Prosper Mérimée when he was the Chief Inspector of Historic Monuments in the mid 19 th century.

Mérimée is most noted as the author of the novella Carmen that became the Bizet’s Opera of the same name, however, he did a lot more than giving the world the story of the gypsy Carmen. Mérimée saved the UNESCO city of Carcassonne from destruction and saved so many of the Roman antiquities in France.


Love Travelling. Hate Trawling Travel Sites?

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Watch the video: Visite privée du musée dArchéologie (January 2022).