Combat of Almaraz, 18 May 1812

Combat of Almaraz, 18 May 1812

The combat of Almaraz (18 May 1812) saw a detached British army under General Rowland Hill destroy a key French bridge over the River Tagus, making it much harder for Marmont and Soult to help each other.

In late April Wellington was presented with a series of captured dispatches from Marmont. One of them made it clear just how important the bridge over the Tagus at Almaraz was to his army, and that there was only one division, under General Foy, near enough to support the garrisons. Wellington had already considered an attack on the forts in February, but dismissed the idea because there were three French divisions in the area. Now he decided that the risk was worth it - he could easy detach a force large enough to defeat Foy, and if the bridge was cut, then Soult would struggle to send any help to Marmont during the upcoming Salamanca campaign.

General Rowland 'Daddy' Hill was selected to command the expedition. Hill was warned to prepare for the mission on 24 April, it was mentioned in Wellington's dispatches on 4 May and the official orders were issued on 7 May. Hill was given Howard's and Wilson's British brigades and Ashworth's Portuguese brigade from the 2nd Division, one British cavalry regiment and Campbell's Portuguese cavalry brigade, a total of 7,000 men (probably not counting the engineers and artillerymen).

Hill reached the area of Almaraz early on 17 May. The last barrier between him and the key bridge was the heavily defended Pass of Miravete. His initial plan was to split his army into three. The Portuguese infantry and the artillery were to head along the main road towards the pass to distract the French. Wilson's brigade and the 7th Cacadores were to use a mountain path on the left to hit the key castle at Miravete from the rear. Howard's brigade was to use a similar path on the right and attack the forts defending the bridge.

It soon became clear that this plan wouldn't work. The mountain passes were much harder than expected, and neither flanking column was in place by dawn. The castle and the associated forts were also stronger than expected, and would have needed a regular siege.

Hill spent the rest of 17 May attempting to find another way to attack Miravete, but eventually gave up. His new plan for 18 May was bold but risky. He would use his artillery and part of his infantry to threaten an attack on the castle, while the bulk of the infantry used a gorge to pass by to the right and would then attack the river forts without artillery. Howard's brigade and the 6th Portuguese Line were chosen for this attack.

The French had around 1,000 men around Almaraz. 300, from the centre companies of the 39th Line, were at Miravete. Two companies from the 6th Léger and 39th Line were in Fort Napoleon, on the south bank of the river. The 400 men of the regiment de Prusse and one company of the 6th were in Fort Ragusa on the north bank of the river.

The false attack on Miravete began before 6am, when Hill and the infantry found themselves well placed in cover 300 yards from Fort Napoleon. It took some time for the rest of the column to catch up, and Hill decided to attack with the 900 that had already arrived. The later arrivals were ordered to attack the bridgehead instead.

The attack on Fort Napoleon began soon after six. After some problems caused by short ladders, the British managed to reach the top of the rampart and flooded into the interior of the fort. The French defenders fled towards the bridge-head and across the bridge. The defenders of the bridgehead didn’t stop much longer. By this point the middle pontoons of the bridge had already gone, although it isn't clear who sank them. Hill threatened Fort Ragusa from Fort Napoleon, and the garrison of the second fort also retreated.

Four grenadiers from the 92nd, who had arrived late, swam across the river and towed back some boats. This allowed Hill to occupy Fort Ragusa.

The British lost 189 men in the fighting - 2 wounded during the feint at Miravete, 32 killed and the rest wounded at Fort Napoleon.

French losses were much heavier. Over 250 prisoners were taken at Fort Napoleon, and the total losses were probably around 400.

On the morning of 20 May Hill used captured powder to destroy both forts and the bridgehead. The pontoon bridge was burnt, as were most of the supplies. Hill was then able to return to safety without any interference from Foy.

Both Soult and Marmont assumed that the attack on the bridges meant that they were about to be attacked by Wellington. As a result Soult was even more unwilling than usual to help his fellow Marshal when Wellington advanced towards Salamanca.

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9 Saratoga: A Purely Colonial VictoryAmerican Revolution

The Misconception: The story of Saratoga is simple: The plucky colonial forces won their first substantial victory over the British, proving the rebels&rsquo mettle and thus prompting an outpouring of French assistance.

But Really: The colonists defeated the British at Saratoga with French gunpowder, arms, and supplies&mdashsomething which is too often ignored. Also ignored are the French and Spanish agents who were on the ground in America long before Saratoga. Centuries before the first &ldquospecial advisors&rdquo set foot in Vietnam and Nicaragua, the fledgling USA was studying Foreign Intervention 101 with two countries anxious to check British power.

The first French reports to come out of the colonies appraising the rebels&rsquo martial capabilities were wildly exaggerated&mdashinflating not just the number of men under arms, but also the rebellious spirit of the local populace. Encouraged, France&rsquos government began a policy of profligate spending to finance the young rebellion. Spain was even more anxious to utilize the colonial insurgency to strike at England. Before the Declaration of Independence was even signed, Spain was pumping money and weapons into the colonies, while engaging the British in South America and Portugal. The revolution&rsquos origins were profoundly American, but they were crucially nurtured by agents of both Spain and France.

When war commenced, it was only the swift intervention of the Spanish and French which kept the colonists&rsquo guns loaded and firing for the two-and-a-half years prior to Saratoga. The victory at Saratoga, just like the colonies&rsquo triumph in the war at large, was only possible as a cooperative effort.

Washington had to remind Congress to create the military.

The ratification of the Constitution in 1788 greatly expanded the federal government’s authority, in part by giving Congress the power to raise and support armies. The First Congress did not immediately act upon this provision, however, choosing instead to set up the State, War and Treasury departments and the judiciary, among other things. On August 7, 1789, President Washington urged it to establish “some uniform and effective system” for the military “on which the honor, safety and well being of our country so evidently and essentially depend.” He made a second plea for action three days later. But it was not until September 29, the last day of its first session, that Congress passed a bill empowering the president “to call into service, from time to time, such part of the militia of the states, respectively, as he may judge necessary.” Before that, states could refuse to send along their men.

1st Battalion, 6th Infantry Regiment "The Regulars"

In the late 2000s, the 2nd Brigade, 1st Armored Division began a transformation to the US Army's modular force structure, as part of the transformation of the 1st Armored Division as a whole. The 1st Battalion, 6th Infantry was reorganized, but remained part of the reorganized and redesignated 2nd Brigade Combat Team. As a result it relocated with the rest of the Brigade to Fort Bliss, Texas. Prior to the transformation and relocation, the mission of the 1st Battalion, 6th Infantry Regiment was to, on order, rapidly deploy within the EUCOM, CENTCOM, or other directed areas of vital interest to conduct combat or stability operations.

The 6th United States Infantry Regiment as a whole was born during a storied period of American history. It also had the distinction of having been commanded by Colonel Zachary Taylor, who later became the twelfth president of the United States of America. The 1st Battalion, 6th Infantry Regiment itself had a long and proud history, dating back to The War of 1812. Its lineage and honors covered: The War of 1812, The Mexican War, The Civil War, Indian Wars from 1823-1879, The War with Spain, Philippine Insurrection, Mexican Expedition, World War I, World War II, and Vietnam. The 1st Battalion, 6th Infantry was also part of IFOR, Task Force Eagle, which was charged with implementing the military aspects of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia-Herzegovina.

The 1st Battalion, 6th Infantry traces its lineage back to 11 January 1812, and the formation of the 11th Infantry Regiment. The Regiment was constituted when the Congress authorized a strengthening of the regular Army in preparation for the threatening conflict that became known as the War of 1812. The unit served on the Canadian border throughout the War of 1812. 1st Battalion, 6th Infantry was first constituted on 11 January 1812 in the Regular Army as a company of the 11th Infantry Regiment and organized between March and May 1812 in Vermont, New Hampshire, or Connecticut.

The unit was consolidated between May and October 1815 with a company of the 25th Infantry (first constituted on 26 June 1812) and a company each of the 27th, 29th, and 37th Infantry (all first constituted on 29 January 1813) to form a company of the 6th Infantry. The resulting unit was designated on 22 May 1816 as Company A, 6th Infantry.

In 1831 and 1832, the entire Regiment entered the series of actions to be known as the Black Hawk War, against the Sac and Fox Indians. On 2 August 1832, the 6th Infantry caught the Indians at the junction of the Bad Axe River with the Mississippi (in present day Wisconsin), and killed most of Black Hawk's band (records say that 950 Sac were massacred), earning the Campaign Streamer Black Hawk. In 1837, the units of the Regiment left Jefferson Barracks for Florida via Louisiana. As part of a force commanded by Colonel Zachary Taylor, the Regiment entered the Second Seminole Indian War in eastern Florida in 1837. It was the first "guerrilla-style" war fought by US troops.

At the outset of the Civil War in April 1861, the Regiment was directed to hurry eastward from California and join the Federal forces. According to one biographer of the time, "Several of the Regiment's best and bravest officers, honest in the mistaken construction of the Constitution and true to their convictions as to their duty, had tendered their resignations and given themselves to the Confederate cause." During the American Civil War, the 6th US Infantry Regiment lost during service 2 Officers and 29 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded, and 1 Officer and 43 Enlisted men by disease, for a total of 75 men.

For six years after the Civil War, the Regiment served at various stations in Georgia and South Carolina. Company A, 6th Infantry was consolidated on 1 May 1869 with Company A, 42nd Infantry, Veteran Reserve Corps (first constituted 21 September 1866), and the consolidated unit was designated as Company A, 6th Infantry. The Regiment as a whole moved to Fort Hays, Kansas in October 1871. For the next several years, the Regiment saw duty on the frontier in Kansas, Colorado, the Dakotas, Iowa, Wyoming, Idaho and Utah. In 1872, the Regiment was in the Dakota Indian Territory, fighting many engagements against hostile Indian forces. In 1872 and 1873, the Regiment earned Campaign Streamers North Dakota 1872 and 1873. The next several years saw much action for the Regiment during the Indian Wars, and they were awarded Campaign Streamers Montana 1879, Little Big Horn, Cheyennes, and Utes.

In 1880, the Regiment moved to Fort Thomas, Kentucky, where it remained until called to action again in June 1898, in the Spanish-American War. On 1 July 1898, the 6th Infantry Regiment took the brunt of the fighting during the charge up San Juan Hill, but carried its standard high and bravely, and always forward, and won the battle.

The Regiment sailed in late July 1898 to the Philippines to help quell the Philippine Insurrection. The Moro tribe was one of the toughest enemies the 6th had ever faced. Every one of them fought to the death and preferred to do it in hand-to-hand style. The Regiment fought over 50 engagements, and it left with Campaign Streamers for Jolo, Negros in 1899, and Panay in 1900. In March 1905 the Regiment returned to the Philippines to do battle with the Moros again. For 3 days in 1906, elements of the Regiment fought in the Battle of Bud Dago, one of the fiercest conflicts of the entire island campaign. The successful ending to the battle broke the Moro strength and ended the fighting in that part of the island.

Following service in the Philippines, the 6th Infantry Regiment returned to The Presidio in California. In May 1914, it entered into service on the Mexican border. In March 1916, it proceeded to San Antonio, Chihuahua, as part of the Punitive Expedition. In February 1917 the Punitive Expedition was withdrawn and the Regiment returned to the United States, stationed at Fort Bliss, Texas. For their actions, the Regiment was awarded another campaign streamer, Mexico 1916-1917.

On 18 November 1917, the 6th Infantry Regiment was assigned to the 10th Infantry Brigade, 5th Infantry Division, and began training stateside for the Great War. In the latter part of May 1917, the 6th Infantry Regiment was declared ready for introduction to combat and was placed at the disposal of the French for service at the front. In July 1918, a strategic offensive plan was agreed upon by the Allied commanders, the immediate purpose of which was to reduce the salients that interfered with further offensive operations. One of these was the St. Mihiel salient. The First US Army was organized on 10 August 1918 and directed to launch an offensive on 12 September 1918 to reduce this salient. The 6th Infantry Regiment was destined to play an important role in this operation. On 1 December 1918, the 6th Infantry Regiment conducted a march from Luxembourg to the city of Trier, Germany, becoming the first American troops to enter that ancient city.

Between World War I and World War II, the Regiment returned to the United States, where they continued to train to become one of the best regiments in the Army. The Regiment was relieved in August 1921 from assignment to the 5th Division. It was assigned on 24 March 1923 to the 6th Division. The Regiment was relieved on 16 October 1939 from assignment to the 6th Division. In 1936, the Regiment had been designated as a mechanized unit by the War Department. Company A, 6th Infantry was reorganized on 15 July 1940 as Company A, 6th Infantry (Armored), an element of the 1st Armored Division.

In February of 1941, the Regiment was stationed at Fort Knox, Kentucky, conducting routine training and activities under the command of Colonel Harry B. Crea. In April 1941, the Regiment began supplying cadre for the Infantry Regiment of the 4th Armored Division, which was to be stationed at Pine Camp, New York. In May 1941, the Regiment continued to get replacements and conduct routine training. The Regiment consisted of a Regimental Headquarters, an Anti-Tank company, the Regimental Band, and 2 battalions, each with a Headquarters company and 4 line companies. In August 1941, the Regiment moved to Louisiana to conduct maneuvers, then returned to Fort Knox in November 1941. A few weeks later, on 7 December 1941, war was declared, and soldiers awaiting release were returned to their barracks. Shortly thereafter, the unit was redesignated on 1 January 1942 as Company A, 6th Armored Infantry, an element of the 1st Armored Division.

The Regiment was broken up 20 July 1944 and its elements reorganized and redesignated as elements of the 1st Armored Division as follows: 6th Armored Infantry (less 2nd and 3rd Battalions) as the 6th Armored Infantry Battalion 2nd Battalion, 6th Infantry as the 11th Armored Infantry Battalion and 3rd Battalion as the 14th Armored Infantry Battalion. Company A, 6th Armored Infantry was reorganized and redesignated on 20 July 1944 as Company A, 6th Armored Infantry Battalion, an element of the 1st Armored Division.

After the end of the Second World War, the 6th Armored Infantry Battalion was converted and redesignated on 1 May 1946 as the 12th Constabulary Squadron and concurrently relieved from assignment to the 1st Armored Division. It was subsequently assigned to the 1st Constabulary Regiment. It was inactivated on 20 September 1947 in Germany. It was converted and redesignated on 10 October 1950 as the 6th Infantry (less 2nd and 3rd Battalions) and relieved from assignment to the 1st Constabulary Regiment. Similarly, the Company A, 6th Armored Infantry Battalion was converted and redesignated on 1 May 1946 as Troop A, 12th Constabulary Squadron, an element of the 1st Constabulary Regiment, before being inactivated on 20 September 1947 in Germany. In that time the unit was assigned throughout the American zone of Occupation in West Germany.

In Berlin, on 16 October 1950, the 12th Constabulary Squadron, having been converted and redesignated, was reactivated as the 6th Infantry Regiment. At that time the 12th Constabulary Squadron had also been relieved from assignment to the 1st Constabulary Regiment. Troop A, was converted and redesignated on 10 October 1950 as Company A, 6th Infantry, and was activated on 16 October 1950 in Germany.

The unit was reorganized and redesignated on 15 February 1957 as Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 1st Armored Rifle Battalion, 6th Infantry, and assigned to the 1st Armored Division with its organic elements concurrently constituted and activated. The Battalion was reorganized and redesignated on 3 February 1962 as the 1st Battalion, 6th Infantry.

The Battalion was relieved from assignment to the 1st Armored Division on 12 May 1967 and assigned to the 198th Infantry Brigade. On 17 May 1967, the 1st Battalion, 6th Infantry was reorganized as a standard Infantry Battalion, attached to the 23rd Infantry Division (AMERICAL Division). 1-6th Infantry was the first element ashore, arriving at Chu Lai in October 1967 to participate in its 35 campaign and 9th war. After a brief initial operation south of Duc Pho, the Battalion was assigned the mission of securing the installation at Chu Lai.

The Regulars participated in Task Force Oregon, Task Force Miracle, Operation Wheeler/Wallowa, Operation Burlington Trail, and had the mission of protecting the AMERICAL Division Headquarters and Chu Lai Defense Command from enemy ground mortar and rocket attacks. 1-6th Infantry was awarded the Valorous Unit Citation for its victory at the battle of Lo Giang, between 7 and 11 February 1968.

Task Force Miracle was formed in February 1968 during the enemy's Tet offensive when the city of Da Nang was threatened by the 60th Main Force Viet Cong Battalion. 1-6th Infantry and 2-1st Infantry assisted elements of the US Marine Corps in the fighting. After 4 days of fierce fighting, the threat to Da Nang was obliterated and the task force was deactivated and returned to the AMERICAL Division's area of operation. During the Vietnam Conflict, 1-6th Infantry was awarded streamers for Counteroffensive Phase III, Tet Counteroffensive, Counteroffensive Phase IV, Counteroffensive Phase V, Counteroffensive Phase VI, Tet 69 Counteroffensive, Summer-Fall 1969, Winter-Spring 1970, Sanctuary Counteroffensive, Counteroffensive Phase VII, and Consolidation I.

On 15 February 1969, the Battalion was released from assignment to the 198th Infantry Brigade and assigned directly to the 23rd Infantry Division. On 12 September 1972, the Battalion was relieved from assignment to the 23rd Infantry Division and assigned back to the 1st Armored Division, returning to West Germany.

In 1974, the battalions of the 6th Infantry were dispersed between Germany and the United States. The 1st Battalion was assigned to the 1st Brigade, 1st Armored Division in Illesheim, Germany. The Battalion was relieved on 17 January 1992 from assignment to the 1st Armored Division and assigned to the 3rd Infantry Division, moving to a new base at Vilseck, Germany.

On 5 January 1994, Company B, 1st Battalion, 6th Infantry was assigned to the United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR) in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia as part of Operation Able Sentry.

In 1996, divisions in Europe were again reorganized, and the 1st Battalion, 6th Infantry was reflagged in Vilseck as an element of the 1st Infantry Division. In Baumholder on 16 February 1997, the 3rd Battalion, 12th Infantry and 4th Battalion, 12th Infantry were reflagged as the 1st Battalion, 6th Infantry, and 2nd Battalion, 6th Infantry, both assigned to the 2nd Brigade, 1st Armored Division.

In Baumholder, Germany, they were mechanized warfighters, maneuvering Bradley fighting vehicles and firing heavy weapons. In the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, soldiers of the 1st Battalion, 6th Infantry Regiment, were UN peacekeepers. They patroled international borders on foot and manned remote mountaintop observation posts.

On 18 August 1997, Task Force 1-6th Infantry was again assigned to the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia with the United Nations Preventive Deployment Force (UNPREDEP) to assume the mission of Able Sentry. Once the mission concluded in March of 1998, 1st Battalion, 6th Infantry Regiment returned home to Baumholder, Germany. The UN Security Council had reduced the size of the overall UN force in Macedonia to 750 from 1,050 people. As a result the American component, which has been about half of the force, was also be reduced accordingly. These soldiers were primarily from the 1st Battalion, 6th Infantry Regiment in Baumholder, Germany. There were also, however, some National Guard troops assigned to that mission in Macedonia.

In May of 1998, 2nd Battalion, 6th Infantry was joined by Company B, 1st Battalion, 6th Infantry, in deploying to Bosnia-Herzegovia as part of Operation Joint Endeavor / Operation Joint Forge (OJE / OJF). They were relieved in October, 1998, and returned home to Baumholder.

Captain Robert C. Scheetz Jr, 31, of Dothan, Alabama, died 30 May 2004 in Musayyib, Iraq, when his vehicle hit an improvised explosive device. Scheetz was assigned to the 1st Battalion, 6th Infantry Regiment, Baumholder, Germany.

In the late 2000s, the 2nd Brigade, 1st Armored Division began transformation to the US Army's new modular force structure. It also returned to the United States, being reactivated as the reorganized and redesignated 2nd Brigade Combat Team at Fort Bliss, Texas. 1st Battalion, 6th Infantry was reorganized, but remained assigned to the reorganized and redesignated 2nd Brigade Combat Team, 1st Armored Division.

The British View the War of 1812 Quite Differently Than Americans Do

As we look forward to celebrating the bicentennial of the “Star-Spangled Banner” by Francis Scott Key, I have to admit, with deep shame and embarrassment, that until I left England and went to college in the U.S., I assumed the words referred to the War of Independence. In my defense, I suspect I’m not the only one to make this mistake.

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For people like me, who have got their flags and wars mixed up, I think it should be pointed out that there may have been only one War of 1812, but there are four distinct versions of it—the American, the British, the Canadian and the Native American. Moreover, among Americans, the chief actors in the drama, there are multiple variations of the versions, leading to widespread disagreement about the causes, the meaning and even the outcome of the war.

In the immediate aftermath of the war, American commentators painted the battles of 1812-15 as part of a glorious “second war for independence.” As the 19th century progressed, this view changed into a more general story about the “birth of American freedom” and the founding of the Union. But even this note could not be sustained, and by the end of the century, the historian Henry Adams was depicting the war as an aimless exercise in blunder, arrogance and human folly. During the 20th century, historians recast the war in national terms: as a precondition for the entrenchment of Southern slavery, the jumping-off point for the goal of Manifest Destiny and the opening salvos in the race for industrial-capitalist supremacy. The tragic consequences of 1812 for the native nations also began to receive proper attention. Whatever triumphs could be parsed from the war, it was now accepted that none reached the Indian Confederation under Tecumseh. In this postmodern narrative about American selfhood, the “enemy” in the war—Britain—almost disappeared entirely.

Not surprisingly, the Canadian history of the war began with a completely different set of heroes and villains. If the U.S. has its Paul Revere, Canada has Shawnee chief Tecumseh, who lost his life defending Upper Canada against the Americans, and Laura Secord, who struggled through almost 20 miles of swampland in 1813 to warn British and Canadian troops of an imminent attack. For Canadians, the war was, and remains, the cornerstone of nationhood, brought about by unbridled U.S. aggression. Although they acknowledge there were two theaters of war—at sea and on land—it is the successful repulse of the ten U.S. incursions between 1812 and 1814 that have received the most attention.

This timber, which survived the burning of the White House 200 years ago, was donated to the Smithsonian after it was discovered during a 1950 renovation. (David Burnett )

By contrast, the British historiography of the War of 1812 has generally consisted of short chapters squeezed between the grand sweeping narratives of the Napoleonic Wars. The justification for this begins with the numbers: Roughly 20,000 on all sides died fighting the War of 1812 compared with over 3.5 million in the Napoleonic. But the brevity with which the war has been treated has allowed a persistent myth to grow about British ignorance. In the 19th century, the Canadian historian William Kingsford was only half-joking when he commented, “The events of the War of 1812 have not been forgotten in England for they have never been known there.” In the 20th, another Canadian historian remarked that the War of 1812 is “an episode in history that makes everybody happy, because everybody interprets it differently. the English are happiest of all, because they don’t even know it happened.”

The truth is, the British were never happy. In fact, their feelings ranged from disbelief and betrayal at the beginning of the war to outright fury and resentment at the end. They regarded the U.S. protests against Royal Navy impressment of American seamen as exaggerated whining at best, and a transparent pretext for an attempt on Canada at worst. It was widely known that Thomas Jefferson coveted all of North America for the United States. When the war started, he wrote to a friend: “The acquisition of Canada this year, as far as the neighborhood of Quebec, will be a mere matter of marching, and will give us experience for the attack of Halifax the next, and the final expulsion of England from the American continent.” Moreover, British critics interpreted Washington’s willingness to go to war as proof that America only paid lip service to the ideals of freedom, civil rights and constitutional government. In short, the British dismissed the United States as a haven for blackguards and hypocrites.

The long years of fighting Napoleon’s ambitions for a world empire had hardened the British into an “us-against-them” mentality. All British accounts of the war—no matter how brief—concentrate on the perceived inequality of purpose between the conflict across the Atlantic and the one in Europe: with the former being about wounded feelings and inconvenience, and the latter about survival or annihilation.

To understand the British point of view, it is necessary to go back a few years, to 1806, when Napoleon ignited a global economic war by creating the Continental System, which closed every market in the French Empire to British goods. He persuaded Russia, Prussia and Austria to join in. But the British cabinet was buoyed by the fact that the Royal Navy still ruled the seas, and as long as it could maintain a tight blockade of France’s ports there was hope. That hope was turned into practice when London issued the retaliatory Orders in Council, which prohibited neutral ships from trading with Napoleonic Europe except under license. The Foreign Secretary George Canning wrote: “We have now, what we had once before and once only in 1800, a maritime war in our power—unfettered by any considerations of whom we may annoy or whom we may offend—And we have. determination to carry it through.”

Canning’s “whom” most definitely included the Americans. The British noted that the American merchant marine, as one of the few neutral parties left in the game, was doing rather well out of the war: Tonnage between 1802 and 1810 almost doubled from 558,000 to 981,000. Nor could the British understand why Jefferson and then Madison were prepared to accept Napoleon’s false assurances that he would refrain from using the Continental System against American shipping—but not accept Prime Minister Lord Liverpool’s genuine promises that wrongly impressed American sailors would be released. Writing home to England, a captain on one of the Royal Navy ships patrolling around Halifax complained: “I am really ashamed of the narrow, selfish light in which [the Americans] have regarded the last struggle for liberty and morality in Europe—but our cousin Jonathan has no romantic fits of energy and acts only upon cool, solid calculation of a good market for rice or tobacco!”

It was not until the beginning of 1812 that Britain belatedly acknowledged the strength of American grievances. Royal Navy ships near the American coastline were ordered “not to give any just cause of offence to the Government or the subjects of the United States.” Captains were also commanded to take extra care when they searched for British deserters on American ships. Parliament had just revoked the Orders in Council when the news arrived that President Madison had signed the Declaration of War on June 18. London was convinced that the administration would rescind the declaration once it heard that the stated cause—the Orders in Council—had been dropped. But when Madison then changed the cause to impressment of American sailors (which now numbered about 10,000), it dawned on the ministry that war was unavoidable.

News of Madison’s declaration coincided with momentous developments in Europe. Napoleon Bonaparte and his Grande Armée of 500,000 men—the largest pan-European force ever assembled to that date—invaded Russia on June 24 with the aim of forcing Czar Alexander I to recommit to the Continental System. Britain decided its only course of action was to concentrate on Europe and treat the American conflict as a side issue. Just two battalions and nine frigates were sent across the Atlantic. Command of the North American naval station was given to Adm. Sir John Borlase Warren, whose orders were to explore all reasonable avenues for negotiation.

The first six months of the war produced a mixed bag of successes and failures for both sides. The larger U.S. warships easily trounced the inferior British frigates sent to the region, and in six single-ship encounters emerged victorious in every one. American privateers had an even better year, capturing over 150 British merchant ships worth $2 million. But the British took heart from the land war, which seemed to be going their way with very little effort expended. With the help of Shawnee war chief Tecumseh and the Indian Confederation he built up, the Michigan Territory actually fell back into British possession. In late November an American attempt to invade Upper Canada ended in fiasco. The holding pattern was enough to allow Henry, 3rd Earl of Bathurst, Secretary for War and the Colonies, to feel justified in having concentrated on Napoleon. “After the strong representations which I had received of the inadequacy of the force in those American settlements,” he wrote to the Duke of Wellington in Spain, “I know not how I should have withstood the attack against me for having sent reinforcements to Spain instead of sending them for the defense of British possessions.”

Yet the early signs in 1813 suggested that Earl Bathurst might still come to regret starving Canada of reinforcements. York (the future Toronto), the provincial capital of Upper Canada, was captured and burned by U.S. forces on April 27, 1813. Fortunately, in Europe, it was Napoleon who was on the defensive—bled dry by his abortive Russian campaign and proven vulnerable in Spain and Germany. What few Americans properly grasped was that in British eyes the real war was going to take place at sea. Although the death of Tecumseh in October 1813 was a severe blow to its Canadian defense strategy, Britain had already felt sufficiently confident to separate nine more ships from the Mediterranean Fleet and send them across the Atlantic. Admiral Warren was informed, “We do not intend this as a mere paper blockade, but as a complete stop to all Trade & intercourse by sea with those Ports, as far as the wind & weather, & the continual presence of a sufficing armed Force, will permit and ensure.”

About Amanda Foreman

Amanda Foreman is the award-winning author of Georgiana: Duchess of Devonshire and A World on Fire: Britain's Crucial Role in the American Civil War. Her next book The World Made by Women: A History of Women from the Age of Cleopatra to the Era of Thatcher, is slated for publication by Random House (US) and Allen Lane (UK) in 2015.

War of 1812 Facts

Sir Amédée Forestier, The Signing of the Treaty of Ghent, Christmas Eve, 1814, 1914, oil on canvas, Smithsonian American Art Museum, Gift of the Sulgrave Institution of the U.S. and Great Britain. Signing of Treaty of Ghent

The War of 1812 is one of the least studied wars in American history. Sometimes referred to as the “Second War of Independence,” the War of 1812 was the first large scale test of the American republic on the world stage. With the British Navy impressing American sailors, and the British government aiding Native American tribes in their attacks on American citizens on the frontier, Congress, for the first time in our nation’s history, declared war on a foreign nation: Great Britain. The War of 1812 brought the United States onto the world's stage and was followed by a half-decade now called the "Era of Good Feelings."

This page offers answers to frequently asked questions about this formative and dramatic conflict.

When did the War of 1812 begin?

The War of 1812 began on June 18th, 1812 with the Unites States formally declaring war on the United Kingdom. The war lasted from June 1812-February 1815, a span of two years and eight months.

When did the War of 1812 end?

Peace negotiations began in late 1814, but slow communication across the Atlantic (and indeed across the United States) prolonged the war and also led to numerous tactical errors for both sides. The Treaty of Ghent was signed by British and United States delegates on December 24th, 1814, to be enacted when each side formally ratified the treaty. The British were able to ratify the treaty on December 27th, but it took several weeks for the treaty to reach the United States. It was ratified by the US Senate on February 17th, 1815. The war lasted a total of two years and eight months.

What were the causes of the War of 1812?

The War of 1812 was part of a larger, global conflict. The empires of England and France spent 1789-1815 locked in an almost constant war for global superiority. That war stretched from Europe to North Africa and to Asia and, when the Americans declared war on England, the war engulfed North America as well.

The United States had a variety of grievances against Britain. Many felt that the British had not yet come to respect the United States as a legitimate country. The British were impressing, or American sailors at sea as well as blocking American trade with France—both of these were also spillover policies from the British prosecution of the war with France. The British were also unsubtly supporting Native American groups who were in conflict with American settlers along the frontier.

Impressment was a practice wherein a nation would take men into military or naval forces by compulsion, without giving notice. Often referred to as the "press gang", impressment was used by several nations in the 19th century. The term is most commonly associated with the United Kingdom as it was a common practice for the Royal Navy to use impressment during wartime. Impressment was a grievance cited as a cause of the American Revolution but is most commonly associated with the War of 1812. The practice ceased in the Royal Navy after 1814.

Where was the War of 1812 fought?

The War of 1812 was fought in the United States, Canada, and on the high seas. Engagements were fought in the Old Southwest (Alabama, Louisiana, Georgia, and Mississippi), the Old Northwest (embracing Ohio, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Wisconsin) Canada, Coastal Maine and the Chesapeake.

Many battles were engaged in rivers, lakes, and the oceans. The British enforced a blockade of American ports, particularly in the South, along the Atlantic seaboard. Naval engagements flared, especially around the Chesapeake Bay, as this blockade was challenged. Additionally, since the war had a distinct commercial character, pirate-style raids were carried out against trade ships throughout the Atlantic. Lake Erie and Lake Ontario played major roles in the War of 1812. Sitting amidst the main theater of operations in the North, they shaped the movements of the contending armies. Large ships were built and put on the Lakes, where they engaged in full-scale battles for supremacy in order to move troops and bombard rival towns.

Who was the American President during the War of 1812?

James Madison, “the Father of the Constitution,” was the president throughout the war. When the nation was first founded, Madison was closely allied with Thomas Jefferson in seeking a decentralized agrarian democracy. As time wore on, however, the man changed. Throughout the War of 1812, he struggled to motivate northeastern states to contribute men and money to the war effort. By the time the war was over, Madison was a proponent of centralized power and a strong manufacturing economy.

Who were some of the important military figures of the War of 1812?

Many of the important military figures of the War of 1812 had started their careers either during the Revolutionary War or during the ongoing wars between Britain and France, particularly the Napoleonic Wars (1803-1815).

Important American figures included Oliver Hazard Perry, the "Hero of Lake Erie", Jacob Brown who successfully defended Fort Erie despite a seven-week siege, and was later promoted to Commander General of the U.S. Army, and Winfield Scott was a brave fighter who also implemented a training system that greatly improved the battlefield performance of the American army. He would later conceive of the “Anaconda Plan” that shaped Northern strategy in the Civil War. In addition, two famous future Presidents made their mark during the war William Henry Harrison who responsible for the military destruction of Tecumseh’s Confederacy of Native American tribes, and Andrew Jackson, who defeated the Creek Indians in Alabama and won a dramatic victory against the British at New Orleans.

Important British figures included Isaac Brock, a popular imperial administrator in Canada who became a hero posthumously for his heroic but fatal defense of Queenston Heights, Robert Ross who led the veteran expeditionary force that burned Washington, D.C. and was killed outside of Baltimore at the Battle of North Point, and Edward Pakenham, a respected Napoleonic War veteran who led the British column that attacked the Gulf Coast, killed at the Battle of New Orleans.

Important Canadian figures included Gordon Drummond, a Canadian-born officer in the British Army who important role in the Battle of Lundy’s Lane and the subsequent siege of Fort Erie, Robert Livingston a military courier who had helped lift the siege of Fort Mackinac by smuggling in fresh supplies using camouflaged boats, and Richard Pierpont, a former slave who won freedom by fighting for the British in the Revolutionary War who organized “The Coloured Corps,” made up primarily of slaves who had escaped to Canada, which fought at the Battles of Queenston Heights and Fort George.

What role did Native Americans play in the War of 1812?

Shawnee War Chief Tecumseh

Native Americans played a major role in the War of 1812. Tribes were aligned with both sides of the conflict, although predominately tribes allied themselves with the British against the United States. The tribes fought along the frontier and along the Gulf Coast tribal wars occurred alongside battles of the War of 1812. Famous Native Americans included Tecumseh, a Shawnee leader who organized a confederation of Native American tribes, known as Tecumseh’s Confederacy, to resist ongoing encroachment on their lands by European settlers. Tecumseh was killed at the Battle of the Thames and his Confederacy fell apart. Black Hawk was a Sauk chief who fought against American frontiersmen. After the War of 1812, Black Hawk organized a new confederacy, leading to the Black Hawk War of 1832.

What roles did African-Americans play in the War of 1812?

African Americans were not officially allowed to join the U.S. Army during the War of 1812, although they served extensively in the U.S. Navy. Approximately one-quarter of the U.S. sailors at the Battle of Lake Erie were African American. Roughly 350 men of the “Battalion of Free Men of Color” fought at the Battle of New Orleans.

A company of mostly escaped slaves served with the British in Canada, participating in the Battle of Queenston Heights and the Siege of Fort Erie.

During the Royal Navy’s blockade of the Atlantic seaboard, roughly 4,000 slaves escaped onto British ships, where they were welcomed and freed. Many of them joined the British military, participating in the Battle of Bladensburg and the burning of Washington, D.C.

How many people fought in the War of 1812?

Only 7,000 men served in the United States military when the war broke out. By the end of the war, more than 35,000 American regulars and 458,000 militia—though many of these were only mustered in for local defense—were serving on land and sea.

The global British regular military was comprised of 243,885 soldiers in 1812. By war’s end, more than 58,000 regulars, 4,000 militia, and 10,000 Native Americans would join the battle for North America.

How many people died in the War of 1812?

Roughly 15,000 Americans died as a result of the War of 1812. Roughly 8,600 British and Canadian soldiers died from battle or disease. The losses among Native American tribes are not known.

What were the major battles of the War of 1812?

The War of 1812 was shaped by battles on land and sea.

The capture of Detroit (August 16, 1812) – Only weeks after the war began, American General William Hull surrendered Detroit, along with a sizable army, without resistance to a smaller British force.

The capture of the HMS Java, HMS Guerriere, and HMS Macedonian (August-December 1812) – The new US frigates Constitution and United States started the war with a bang, performing well in a series of Atlantic engagements that boosted American morale after a disappointing beginning on land.

The Battle of Queenston Heights (October 13, 1812) – In a dramatic battle, British and Canadian troops turned back an American incursion into Canada. British General Isaac Brock was killed.

The Battle of York (April 27, 1813) – American forces burned York, the capital of Upper Canada, after winning a hard-fought land battle.

The Battle of Lake Erie (September 10, 1813) – Oliver Hazard Perry won fame for his heroic deeds in this victory, which secured Lake Erie for the rest of the war and paved the way for the liberation of Detroit.

The Battle of the Thames, Ontario (October 5, 1813) – William Henry Harrison crushed a combined force of British and Native Americans in this battle, killing the Shawnee leader Tecumseh and thus removing the most dangerous threat to American settlers in the northwest.

The Battle of Horseshoe Bend (March 27, 1814) – Andrew Jackson defeated the Red Stick Creeks and then forced the tribe to cede their claim to 23 million acres of what is now Alabama and Georgia.

The Battle of Bladensburg (August 24, 1814) – British regulars routed Maryland militia in this battle, opening the road to Washington, D.C., which they burned.

The Battle of Plattsburgh (September 11, 1814) – The British launched a poorly coordinated joint operation against the shipyard at Plattsburgh, but were decisively repulsed in one of the war’s largest naval engagements.

The Battle of North Point and the Defense of Fort McHenry (September 12-13, 1814) – After burning Washington, D.C., British forces advanced on Baltimore. Stubborn resistance at North Point and Fort McHenry saved the city, compelled the British to suspend their campaign, and inspired the American national anthem.

The Battles of Stoney Creek and Beaver Dams (June 6-24, 1813) – Another invasion of Canada was repulsed in these battles.

The Battle of Lundy’s Lane (July 25, 1814) – In one of the bloodiest battles of the war, one marked by extensive hand-to-hand fighting, the Americans were forced out of Canada for good.

The Battle of New Orleans (January 8, 1815) – Andrew Jackson inflicted over 2,000 casualties on attacking British troops while suffering 333 in the entire campaign. The battle became a touchstone of American pride, despite it occurring after the war had technically ended.

What kinds of weapons were used in the War of 1812?

The most widely used weapon in the War of 1812 was the smoothbore musket, which was carried by most of the infantrymen in the field. These had an effective battlefield range of 50-100 yards, necessitating close assaults and bayonet tactics be employed. There were also some units equipped with rifles, which were used primarily as light or specialized infantry.

Cannons were smoothbore as well, though they could shoot roughly 400 yards accurately. They were used with deadly, decisive effect on the battlefield.

Cavalrymen generally carried pistols and sabers and were used to outmaneuver or charge enemy formations.

How advanced was medicine during the War of 1812?

Disease was the primary cause of death during the War of 1812, not battlefield wounds. When men were wounded, they had little to look forward to in the hospital. Although sanitation was recognized as being medically important, advancements such as anesthesia and ambulatory care were still decades away. A British surgeon (who, along with one assistant, would generally be responsible for 1,000 men) remembered this:

“There is hardly on the face of the earth a less enviable situation than that of an Army Surgeon after a battle-worn out and fatigued in body and mind, surrounded by suffering, pain, and misery, much of which he knows it is not in his power to heal…. I never underwent such fatigue as I did the first week at Butler's Barracks. The weather was intensely hot, the flies in myriads, and lighting on the wounds, deposited their eggs, so that maggots were bred in a few hours.” – Tiger Dunlop, 89th Regiment of Foot

The average British and American soldier during the War of 1812.

Were there any significant technological advancements during the War of 1812?

The War of 1812 was fought in the midst of the Industrial Revolution, in which a variety of technological advancements came together to forever change the way humans lived and worked.

Steamships and steam-powered railroad engines came into profitable use for the first time during the war years. While they had little effect on the North American conflict, these steam machines would become the technological standard in the decades to come.

Machines made with interchangeable parts became more common during the War of 1812, although the practice was not yet applied to military manufacturing. For the common soldier, the most significant advancement may well have been improved food storage through airtight packaging.

What were the political effects of the War of 1812?

Internationally, the war helped codify a fair standing between the United States, Britain, and Canada. This led to an era of mutually beneficial trade and diplomatic partnership.

Domestically, the war exacerbated tensions between northern industrialists and southern planters. Industrialists were reluctant to go to war with Britain, which was then the worldwide model of the Industrial Revolution. Southerners, on the other hand, were quick to remember the French assistance that had helped win the southern campaigns of the American Revolution as well as the ideological similarities between the two revolutionary nations. The American public generally viewed the outcome of the war favorably, causing the anti-war Federalist Party to fade from national prominence.

What were the economic effects of the War of 1812?

In the early years of the 19th century, the United States was a rapidly expanding commercial power. Many historians cite this growth as a key factor in Britain’s desire to contain American expansion. The war helped to secure America’s unfettered access to the sea, which played a large role in a post-war economic boom.

The prosecution of the war cost the United States government 105 million dollars, which equates to roughly 1.5 billion dollars in 2014. The strain of raising this money drove legislators to charter the Second National Bank, taking another step towards centralization.

The peace terms that ended the war were those of status quo ante bellum, “the state of things as they were before the war.” So, while the War of 1812 was legally a tie—a wash—in terms of territorial acquisitions, historians now look at its long term effects to judge who won.

The Americans declared war (for the first time in their nation’s history) to stop British impressment, reopen the trade lanes with France, remove British support from Native American tribes, and to secure their territorial honor and integrity in the face of their old rulers. All four of these goals were achieved by the time peace broke out, although some British measures were scheduled to be repealed before the war had even begun. By establishing a respected footing with Britain and Canada, the United States also experienced a commercial boom in the years after the war. The overall result of the war was probably positive for the nation as a whole.

The British gained little to nothing from the war, save for an honorable friendship with the United States. Valuable resources were diverted from the battlefields of Europe for the War of 1812, which brought no land or treasure to the crown. The British also lost their Native American lodgment against United States expansion, further unleashing the growth of a major global trade competitor. However, the British did ultimately defeat France in their long war while avoiding a fiasco in North America, which is a considerable victory in the context of the global conflict they waged.

Many Native American tribes fought against the United States in the Northwest, united as a Confederacy led by a Shawnee man named Tecumseh. Many of these tribes had allied with the British during the Revolutionary War as well. The Creek tribe in the Southwest battled settlers and soldiers throughout the War of 1812, eventually allying with a column of British regulars. In reaching peace through status quo antebellum, however, the Native Americans all lost their main request of a recognized nation in North America. British support also evaporated in the years after the war, further quickening the loss of Native lands.

Painting of the signing of the Treaty of Ghent, 1814. Sir Amédée Forestier, The Signing of the Treaty of Ghent, Christmas Eve, 1814, 1914, oil on canvas,

What are some of the best sources of information on the War of 1812?

The Smithsonian National Museum of American History is a treasure trove of information and artifacts, including the original Star-Spangled Banner.

There are many book sources for information on the War of 1812 including:

Are any War of 1812 battlefields preserved?

Many battlefields from the War of 1812 are preserved in part or in full, but many are not. The United States federal government compiled a study in 2007 that identified development threats to many battlefields and described more than half as already being "destroyed or fragmented."

Silver Star – Vietnam War

The Silver Star Medal is the United States' third highest award exclusively for combat valor, and ranks fifth in the precedence of military awards behind the Medal of Honor, the Crosses (Distinguished Service Cross/Navy Cross/Air Force Cross), the Defense Distinguished Service Medal (awarded by DOD), and the Distinguished Service Medals of the various branches of service. It is the highest award for combat valor that is not unique to any specific branch it has been bestowed by the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, Air Force, Coast Guard, and Merchant Marines.It may be given by any one of the individual services to not only their own members, but to members of other branches of service, foreign allies, and even to civilians for "gallantry in action" in support of combat missions of the United States military.

Listed below are links to the recipients and their citations by branch of service.

OMAN’S ATLAS OF THE PENINSULAR WAR A Complete Colour Assembly of all Maps & Plans from Sir Charles Oman’s History of the Peninsular War

A full assembly of all 98 colour maps and plans (plus 7 in black and white) from Sir Charles Oman’s History of the Peninsular War. The maps are in chronological order and include the famous such as “Ciudad Rodrigo” and “Badajoz”, and the not so famous such as “Battle of Espinosa, November 11, 1808”.
The maps are full size and faithful to the original cartography in all respects, allowing the reader to follow the War and its battles, campaigns and skirmishes, as the fighting and its various phases developed month by month, and year by year. This is a very impressive map collection that should be part of every serious Napoleonic scholar’s collection.


Maps from Volume 1
1. Saragossa.
2. Battle of Medina de Rio Seco. July 14, 1808.
3. Battle of Baylen. July 19, 1818 at the moment of Dupont’s third attack.
Part of Andalusia, between Andujar and the Passes. July 19, 1808.
4. Battle of Vimiero. August 21, 1808.
5. Catalonia.
6. Part of Northern Spain.
7. Battle of Espinosa. November 11, 1808. Madrid in 1808. Battle of Tudela. November 23, 1808.
8. Battle of Corunna. January 16, 1809.
9. Large Map of Spain and Portugal, showing physical features and roads.
Maps from Volume 2
10. Battle of Ucles. January 13, 1809.
Siege of Rosas. November 6 to December 5, 1809.
11. Part of Catalonia, to illustrate St. Cyr’s Campaign. November 1808 to March 1809.
Battle of Valls. February 25, 1809.
12. Second Siege of Saragossa. December 1808 to February 1809.
13. Battle of Medellin. March 28, 1809.
14. Combat of Braga (Lanhozo). March 20, 1809.
Oporto. March – May 1809, showing the Portuguese lines.
15. Northern Portugal, to illustrate Marshal Soult’s Campaign of March to May 1809.
16. Battle of Alcaniz. May 23, 1809.
Battle of Maria. June 15, 1809.
17. Battle of Talavera. The Main Engagement. 3 to 5pm, July 28, 1809.
18. Central Spain, showing the localities of the Talavera Campaign. July to August 1809.
Maps from Volume 3
19. Siege of Gerona
20. Battle of Tamames. October 18, 1809.
21. Battle of Ocana. November 19, 1809.
22. Andalusia, to illustrate the Campaign of 1810.
23. Topography of Cadiz and its environs.
24. Central Portugal.
25. Siege of Astorga.
26. Siege of Ciudad Rodrigo.
27. Combat of the Coa. July 24, 1810.
28. General Map of Catalonia.
29. The Mondego Valley.
30. Battle of Bussaco. September 27, 1810.
31. Ney’s attack at Bussaco.
32. Reynier’s attack at Bussaco.
33. The Lines of Torres Vedras.
Maps from Volume 4
34. Badajoz (the French Siege, January to March 1811), and the Battle of the Gebora (February 19, 1811).
35. The Battle of Barrosa.
36. General Map of the Barrosa Campaign.
37. Combat of Redinha
38. Combat of Casal Novo
39. Combat of Foz d’Arouce
40. The Lower Mondego. To illustrate the first Siege of Massena’s Retreat.
Leiria to the Alva River
41. Combat of Sabugal
42. Map to illustrate the last stage of Massena’s Retreat and the Campaign of Fuentes de Oñoro.
43. Plan of the Siege of Tortosa
44. The two British Sieges of Badajoz in May and June 1811.
45. Battle of Fuentes de Onoro. Positions on the first day, May 3, 1811.
46. Battle of Fuentes de Onoro. May 5, 1811.
47. Battle of Albuera No. 1. (About 10am)
48. Battle of Albuera No. 2. (About 11.30am)
49. General Map of Estremadura.
50. Plan of the Siege of Tarragona.
51. General Map of Catalonia.
Maps from Volume 5
52. General Theatre of the Suchet’s Campaigns in Eastern Spain. Valencia, 1811–1812.
53. Plan of the Battle of Saguntum.
54. Suchet’s Valencia. The Siege. December 1811 to January 1812.
55. General Map of Catalonia.
56. Plan of Tarifa.
57. Plan of the Siege Operations at Ciudad Rodrigo.
58. Plan of the Siege Operations at Badajoz.
59. Map of the District Round Almaraz.
60. General Map of Central Spain, to illustrate the Salamanca Campaign.
61. Plan of the Salamanca Forts.
62. The Salamanca Campaign. Map of the country between Salamanca and Tordesillas.
63. General Plan of the Battle of Salamanca.
64. The Last Episode at Salamanca. Part of the field showing approximate position at the moment of advance of the 6th Division about 7pm.
Combat of Garcia Hernandez. July 23, 1812.
65. General Map of Estremadura to illustrate Hill’s Campaigns in March-April and June-August 1812.
Maps from Volume 6
66. Plan of the Siege Operations at Burgos. September – October 1812.
67. Operations around Salamanca/Almeida region illustrating the Salamanca retreat of November 1812.
68. Battle of Castalla. April 13, 1813.
69. The Campaign of Vittoria. May 22 to June 21, 1813.
70. Plan of the Battle of Vittoria.
71. Attack of St. Sebastian between July 11 and September 9, 1813.
72. General Map of the country between Bayonne and Pamplona.
73. Combat of Roncesvalles. July 25, 1813.
74. Combat of Maya. July 25, 1813.
75. First Battle of Sorauren. July 28, 1813 showing the general situation at 1.15pm.
76. Second Battle of Sorauren and Combat of Beunza. July 30, 1813.
Maps from Volume 7
77. Battle of San Marcial. August 31, 1813.
78. Catalonia. Inset: the country between Barcelona and Tarragona showing the localities of Bentinck’s Bampaign of 1813.
79. Passage of the Bidasso. October 7, 1813.
80. Storm of the French lines above Vera. October 17, 1813.
81. Battle of the Nivelle. November 10, 1813.
82. Battle of the Nive. December 10, 1813.
83. Battle of St. Pierre at the moment of Hill’s Counterstroke. December 13, 1813.
84. The country and the roads between Bayonne and Orthez to illustrate the Campaign of February 1814.
85. Battle of Orthez. February 27, 1814.
86. Combat of Aire. March 2, 1814.
87. Operations round Bordeaux. March – April 1814.
88. Orthez to Toulouse. February 27 – April 11, 1814.
89. Combat of Tarbes. March 20, 1814.
90. The Toulouse Country. March 26 – April 14, 1814.
91. Battle of Toulouse. April 10, 1814.

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SB Atlas of all 98 maps & plans from Oman’s History of the Peninsular War
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California Code, Civil Code - CIV § 1812.30

(a) No person, regardless of marital status, shall be denied credit in his or her own name if the earnings and other property over which he or she has management and control are such that a person of the opposite sex managing and controlling the same amount of earnings and other property would receive credit.

(b) No person, regardless of marital status, managing and controlling earnings and other property shall be offered credit on terms less favorable than those offered to a person of the opposite sex seeking the same type of credit and managing and controlling the same amount of earnings and other property.

(c) No unmarried person shall be denied credit if his or her earnings and other property are such that a married person managing and controlling the same amount of earnings and other property would receive credit.

(d) No unmarried person shall be offered credit on terms less favorable than those offered to a married person managing and controlling the same amount of earnings and other property.

(e) For accounts established after January 1, 1977 or for accounts in existence on January 1, 1977 where information on that account is received after January 1, 1977, a credit reporting agency which in its normal course of business receives information on joint credit accounts identifying the persons responsible for such accounts, or receives information which reflects the participation of both spouses, shall: (1) at the time such information is received file such information separately under the names of each person or spouse, or file such information in another manner which would enable either person or spouse to automatically gain access to the credit history without having in any way to list or refer to the name of the other person, and (2) provide access to all information about the account in the name of each person or spouse.

(f) For all accounts established prior to January 1, 1977, a credit reporting agency shall at any time upon the written or personal request of a person who is or has been married, verify the contractual liability, liability by operation of law, or authorized use by such person, of joint credit accounts appearing in the file of the person's spouse or former spouse, and, if applicable, shall file such information separately and thereafter continue to do so under the names of each person responsible for the joint account or in another manner which would enable either person responsible for the joint account to automatically gain access to the credit history without having in any way to list or refer to the name of the other person.

(g) For the purposes of this chapter “ credit ” means obtainment of money, property, labor, or services on a deferred-payment basis.

(h) For the purposes of this chapter, earnings shall include, but not be limited to, spousal , family, and child support payments, pensions, social security, disability or survivorship benefits. Spousal , family, and child support payments shall be considered in the same manner as earnings from salary, wages, or other sources where the payments are received pursuant to a written agreement or court decree to the extent that the reliability of such payments is established. The factors which a creditor may consider in evaluating the reliability of such payments are the length of time payments have been received the regularity of receipt and whether full or partial payments have been made.

(i) Nothing in this chapter shall be construed to prohibit a person from: (1) utilizing an evaluation of the reliability of earnings provided that such an evaluation is applied to persons without regard to their sex or marital status or (2) inquiring into and utilizing an evaluation of the obligations for which community property is liable pursuant to the Family Code for the sole purpose of determining the creditor's rights and remedies with respect to the particular extension of credit, provided that such is done with respect to all applicants without regard to their sex or (3) utilizing any other relevant factors or methods in determining whether to extend credit to an applicant provided that such factors or methods are applicable to all applicants without regard to their sex or marital status. For the purpose of this subdivision, the fact that an applicant is of childbearing age is not a relevant factor.

(j) Credit applications for the obtainment of money, goods, labor, or services shall clearly specify that the applicant, if married, may apply for a separate account.

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